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SPOKES Thinking Cognitive "Operations" Glossary

Page history last edited by fran toomey 11 years, 1 month ago

S.P.O.K.E.S.Thinking/Cognitive “Operations” Glossary 

September, 2010   Explorience, FT

 

VT. GLEs  for History/Social Studies (typed in upper case)

Definitions adapted or adopted from Collins CoBuild Dictionary

Words in bold print are taken from the SPOKES texts

 

Abstract (abstractly, abstraction) Talk and think in a general way, rather than about a specific for particular thing or event.

 

Allege:  If you allege that something bad is true, you say it but do not prove it.

 

ANALYZE:  IF YOU ANALYZE SOMETHING, YOU CONSIDER IT CAREFULLY. YOU MAY USE SCIENTIFIC METHODS IN ORDER TO  FIND OUT WHAT IT CONSISTS OF.

 

ARGUE  If you argue that something is true, you state it and give the reasons why you think it is true.  His lawyers are arguing that he is unfit to stand trial...

 

Assess:  When you assess a person, thing, or situation, you consider them in order to make a judgment about them.

 

Assert:  If someone asserts a fact or belief, they state it firmly.

 

Assure:  If you assure someone that something is true or will happen, you tell them that it is definitely true or will definitely happen, often to make them less worried (or more confident about what you say).

 

Assume:  If you assume that something is true, you imagine that is true, sometimes wrongly.

 

Attest:  To attest to something means to say, show, or prove that it is true.

 

Believe:  You think something is true, but you are not sure.

 

Categorize (classify): to put people or things into groups and, usually, to give the group a name or label.

 

 Claim:  A claim is something that someone says which they cannot prove (OR HAVE NOT PROVEN YET) and which may be false.

 

 COMPARE:  CONSIDER SOMETHING AND DISCOVSER THE SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES

 

Concede:  If you concede something, you admit, often unwillingly, that it is true or correct.

 

CONCLUDE:  If you conclude that something is true, you decide that it is true using the facts you know as a basis.

Consider, CONSIDERING: THINK ABOUT SOMETHING CAREFULLY.

 

Convince:  Make someone believe that something is true.

 

 CRITIQUE:  A WRITTEN EXAMINATION AND JUDGMENT OF A SITUATION OR OF A PERSON'S WORK OR IDEAS

 

DEBATE:  A DISCUSSION ABOUT A SUBJECT ON WHICH PEOPLE HAVE DIFFERENT VIEWS.

 

Declare:  If you declare that something is true, you say that it is true in a firm, deliberate way.

 

DEDUCE:  If you deduce something or deduce that something is true, you reach that conclusion because of other things that you know to be true.

 

DEFINE:  IF YOU DEFINE SOMETHING, YOU SHOW, DESCRIBE, OR STATE CLEARLY WHAT IT IS AND WHAT ITS LIMITS ARE, OR WHAT IT IS LIKE.

 

DEFEND:  IF YOU DEFEND SOMEONE OR SOMETHING WHEN THEY HAVE BEEN CRITICIZED, YOU ARGUE IN SUPPORT OF THEM/IT.

 

Deliberate:  If you deliberate, you think about something carefully, especially before making a very important decision.

 

 Determine:  To determine a fact means to discover it as a result of investigation.

 

Discredit:  To discredit an idea or evidence means to make it appear false or not certain.

 

Dispute:  If you dispute a fact, statement or theory, you say that it is incorrect or untrue.

 

Distinguish:  to see or understand how things differ.

 

E 

Enumerate:  To list in order

 

ESTABLISH:  IF YOU ESTBALISH THAT SOMETHING IS TRUE, YOU DISCOVESR FACTS THAT SHOW THAT IT IS DEFINITELY TRUE.

 

Estimate:  If you estimate a quantity or value, you make an approximate judgment or calculation of it.

 

Examine:  To look at and consider carefully.

 

EXPLAIN/ EXPLANATION:  (A) TO GIVE DETAILS OR DESCRIBE SOMETHING SO IT IS UNDERSTOOD; (B) GIVE REASONS WHY SOMETHING HAPPENED, ESPECIALLY IN AN ATTEMPT TO JUSTIFY IT.

 

EVALUATE: TO CONSIDER IN ORDER TO MAKE A JUDGMENT, FOR EXAMPLE, ABOUT HOW GOOD OR BAD SOMETHING IS (BASED ON ONE OR MORE CRITERIA).

 

Formulate:  Develop a plan or a proposal, giving details, and after careful thought.

 

G

Generalize:  (Generalization)  If you generalize, you say something that seems to be true in most situations or for most people, but that may not be completely true in all cases.

 

Guess:  To give an answer or provide an opinion which may not be true because you do not have definite knowledge about the matter concerned.

 

HYPOTHESIZE:  If you hypothesize that something will happen, you say that you think that thing will happen because of various facts you have considered.

 

ILLUSTRATE:  TO SHOW THAT WHAT YOU ARE SAYING IS TRUE, OR MAKE YOUR MEANING CLEAR.

 

Illustrate:  To use an example, story or diagram to make something clear.

 

Imagine:  To think about something and your mind makes a picture or idea of it.

 

Imply:  If an event or situation implies that something is the case, it makes you think it likely that it is the case.

 

INFER:    (Inference)  If you infer that something is the case, you decide that it is true on the basis of information that you already have.

 

INQUIRY:  (inquire) A PROCESS OF ASKING ABOUT OR INVESTIGATING SOMETHING IN ORDER TO FIND OUT MORE ABOUT IT.

 

Inspect:  If you inspect something, you look at every part of it carefully in order to find out about it or check that it is all right.

 

Interpret:  If you interpret something in a particular way, you decide that this is its meaning or significance.

 

INTERPRET:IF YOU INTERPRET SOMETHING IN A PARTICULAR WAY, YOU DECIDE THAT THIS IS IT MEANING OR SIGNIFICANCE.

 

INVESTIGAGE:   If someone investigates an event, situation or claim, they try to find out what happened or what is the truth.  (Investigation)

 

J

Justify:  To justify a decision, action or idea means to show or prove that it is reasonable or necessary.

 

K

 

L

 

Maintain:  If you say that someone maintains something is true, you mean that they have stated their opinion strongly but not everyone agrees with them or believes them.

 

Monitor: To regularly check the development or progress of something.

 

N

 

O

 

Ponder:  If you ponder something, you think about it carefully.

 

Posit:  If you posit something, you suggest or assume it as the basis for an argument or calculation.

 

Postulate:  If you postulate something, you suggest it as the basis for a theory, argument or calculation, or assume that it is the basis.

 

PREDICT:  TO SAY THAT SOMETHING WILL HAPPEN.

 

PROBING:  TO ASK QUESTIONS OR TRY TO DISCOVESR FACTS ABOUT SOMETHING

 

PROPOSE: (A)  IF YOU PROPOSE SOMETHING, SUCH AS A PLAN OR AN IDEA, YOU SUGGEST IT FOR PEOPLE TO THINK ABOUT AND DECIDE UPON; (B) IF YOU PROPOSE A THEORY OR AN EXPLANATION, YOU STATE THAT IT IS POSSIBLE OR PROBABLY TRUE, BECAUSE IT FITS WITH THE EVIDENCE THAT YOU HAVE CONSIDERED.

 

Q

 

Reasoning:  Reasoning is the process by which you reach a conclusion after thinking about all the facts. 

 

 Rebut:  If you rebut a charge or criticism that is made against you, you give reasons why it is untrue or unacceptable.

 

REFLECT:  TO THINK DEEPLY ABOUT SOMETHING.

 

Refute:  To prove that an argument, accusation or theory is wrong or untrue.

 

Represent :  A sign, symbol, image or expression that stands in place of  something else, reminds you or makes you think of something else.

 

Research:  Studying something and trying to discover facts about it.

 

Response:  The way you reply or react to something that is said or done.

 

S

Scrutinize:  If you scrutinize something, you example it very carefully, often to find out some information from it or about it.

 

SOLICIT:  TO ASK FOR SOMETHING (HELP, SUPPORT, AN OPINION) FROM SOMEONE.

 

SPECTULATE:  If you speculate about something, you makes guesses about its nature or identity or about what might happen.  (Speculation)

 

SUMMARIZE:  TO GIVE A SUMMARY, WHICH IS A SHORT ACCOUNT THAT GIVES THE MAIN OR MOST IMPORTANT PARTS OF INFORMATION.

 

Suppose:   If you suppose that something is true, you believe that it is probably true because of other things that you know.

 

Surmise:   If you surmise that something is true, you guess it from the available evidence, although you do not know for certain.

 

Suspect:   You use (the word) suspect when you are stating something that you believe is probably true, in order to make it sound less strong or direct.

 

SYNTHESIZE:  IF YOU SYNTHESIZE DIFFERENT IDEAS, FACTS OR EXPERIENCES, YOU COMBINE THEM TO FORM A SIGNLE IDEA OR IMPRESSION (THAT IS MORE INCLUSIVE OR GENERAL OR ABSTRACT).

 

Theorize:  If you theorize that something is true or theorize about it, you develop an abstract idea or set of ideas about something in order to explain it.  Theory

 

Think:  (A) An opinion that something is true or will happen, although you are not certain of the facts; (B) Make a mental effort to consider ideas or problems.

 

Transfer:  To use information (including a skill or strategy)_in a different (but similar) task, situation, or context. 

 

U

 

V 

Verify:  If you verify something, you check that it is true by careful examination or investigation.

 

Visualize:  To imagine by forming a mental picture which could be visual, auditory or linguistic.

 

W 

Wonder:  To think about something because you are interested and want to know more.

 

 

 

 

 

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